standards > identifier schema > DOI:10.25504/FAIRsharing.hFLKCn

ready Digital Object Identifier

Abbreviation: DOI

General Information
The digital object identifier (DOI) system originated in a joint initiative of three trade associations in the publishing industry (International Publishers Association; International Association of Scientific, Technical and Medical Publishers; Association of American Publishers). The system was announced at the Frankfurt Book Fair 1997. The International DOI® Foundation (IDF) was created to develop and manage the DOI system, also in 1997. The DOI system was adopted as International Standard ISO 26324 in 2012. The DOI system implements the Handle System and adds a number of new features. The DOI system provides an infrastructure for persistent unique identification of objects of any type. The DOI system is designed to work over the Internet. A DOI name is permanently assigned to an object to provide a resolvable persistent network link to current information about that object, including where the object, or information about it, can be found on the Internet. While information about an object can change over time, its DOI name will not change. A DOI name can be resolved within the DOI system to values of one or more types of data relating to the object identified by that DOI name, such as a URL, an e-mail address, other identifiers and descriptive metadata. The DOI system enables the construction of automated services and transactions. Applications of the DOI system include but are not limited to managing information and documentation location and access; managing metadata; facilitating electronic transactions; persistent unique identification of any form of any data; and commercial and non-commercial transactions. The content of an object associated with a DOI name is described unambiguously by DOI metadata, based on a structured extensible data model that enables the object to be associated with metadata of any desired degree of precision and granularity to support description and services. The data model supports interoperability between DOI applications. The scope of the DOI system is not defined by reference to the type of content (format, etc.) of the referent, but by reference to the functionalities it provides and the context of use. The DOI system provides, within networks of DOI applications, for unique identification, persistence, resolution, metadata and semantic interoperability.


Countries that developed this resource Worldwide

Created in 1997

Taxonomic range

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How to cite this record DOI; Digital Object Identifier; DOI:; Last edited: Feb. 24, 2020, 5:20 p.m.; Last accessed: Apr 17 2021 7:20 a.m.

This record is maintained by TAC_NISO

Record added: April 23, 2018, 3:22 p.m.
Record updated: Feb. 24, 2020, 8:54 a.m. by The FAIRsharing Team.

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NSF Arctic Data Center
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Crossref is a central reference linking service, providing cross-publisher citation links via an API and visualization tools. Links to funders and other related events and outputs are also available. There are additional services for members such as content registration and reference linking.

Funder Registry
The Funder Registry is an open registry of persistent identifiers for grant-giving organizations around the world. FundRef is the result of collaboration between funding agencies and publishers that correlates grants and other funding with the scholarly output of that support. Publishers participating in FundRef add funding data to the bibliographic metadata they already provide to Crossref for reference linking. FundRef data includes the name of the funder and a grant or award number. Metadata includes funder names, alternate names, and abbreviations.

Atmospheric Science Data Center
The Atmospheric Science Data Center (ASDC) at NASA Langley Research Center is responsible for processing, archiving, and distribution of NASA Earth science data in the areas of radiation budget, clouds, aerosols, and tropospheric chemistry. The ASDC specializes in atmospheric data important to understanding the causes and processes of global climate change and the consequences of human activities on the climate. The ASDC is one of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS) Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) that archive and distribute earth science data, managed by NASA's Earth Science Data and Information System Project (ESDIS), as part of the Earth Science Data Systems (ESDS) Program.

Archive of Data on Disability to Enable Policy and research
The Archive of Data on Disability to Enable Policy and research (ADDEP) is a repository of data on disability and rehabilitation. ADDEP was created to provide access to disability and rehabilitation data; provide technical assistance for data users; and build a connection between research data, community outreach, and activism. Types of data in ADDEP include disability status, health care, rehabilitation services and medicine, disability employment, income, education, and disability policies.

HydroShare is a system operated by The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science Inc. (CUAHSI) that enables users to share and publish water-related data and models in a variety of flexible formats, and to make this information available in a citable, shareable and discoverable manner. HydroShare includes a repository for data and models, and tools (web apps) that can act on content in HydroShare providing users with a gateway to high performance computing and computing in the cloud. With HydroShare you can: share data and models with colleagues; manage access to shared content; share, access, visualize, and manipulate a broad set of hydrologic data types and models; publish data and models and obtain a citable digital object identifier (DOI); aggregate resources into collections; discover and access data and models published by others; use the web services application programming interface (API) to programmatically access resources; and use integrated web applications to visualize, analyze and run models with data in HydroShare.

National Tibetan Plateau/Third Pole Environment Data Center
The National Tibetan Plateau/Third Pole Environment Data Center (TPDC) stores research data concerning the Tibetan Plateau and surrounding regions. TPDC provides online and offline sharing protocols for data users with bilingual data sharing in Chinese and English. There are more than 2400 datasets shared by TPDC, covering geography, atmospheric science, cryospheric science, hydrology, ecology, geology, geophysics, natural resource science, social economy, and other fields. TPDC aims to provide data according to the FAIR ( findable, accessible, interoperable, and reusable) data sharing principles. Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) are used for scientific data access, tracking, and citation.

Research Vocabularies Australia
Research Vocabularies Australia (RVA) helps users access and reuse vocabularies for all areas of research. Some vocabularies are hosted by the Australian Research Data Commons (ARDC) and can be accessed directly through the RVA, otherwise links are provided to the vocabulary owner’s web page. Research Vocabularies Australia also allows you to create and/or publish a vocabulary as well as integrate an existing vocabulary into your own system.

Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost - Database
The Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost (GTN-P) database stores information regarding essential climate variables (ECV) as part of the Global Terrestrial Network on Permafrost (GTN-P) programme. The database aims to provide information on the relationships between ground temperature, gas fluxes and the Earth’s climate system. GTN-P contains time series for borehole temperatures and grids of active layer thickness (TSP, CALM) plus air and surface temperature and moisture (DUE Permafrost, MODIS) measured in the terrestrial Panarctic, Antarctic and Mountainous realms.

Astromaterials Data System
The Astromaterials Data System is a NASA funded data infrastructure that supports the preservation, discovery, access and analysis of laboratory analytical data generated by the study of astromaterials samples. The Astromaterials Data System operates the Astromaterials Data Repository (AstroRepo), which archives, publishes and makes accessible data generated by the study of lunar samples (samples collected during the Apollo missions), meteorites, interstellar dust, solar wind, presolar grains, and other extraterrestrial materials. AstroRepo follows international best practices for trusted data repositories. The Astromaterials Data System is operated at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University as part of a suite of data systems for Earth and planetary sample data (chemical, mineralogical, and petrological observations), including EarthChem, the System for Earth Sample Registration, and the Library of Experimental Phase Relations.

The Dimensions database is a scholarly database containing research articles, citations, books, chapters, and conference proceedings, as well as awarded grants, patents, clinical trials, policy documents, datasets and altmetric information. The free version includes a searchable publications index and links to all the other different entities. The subscription version includes further faceting, further analytical capabilities, and searchable indices of the non-publication content.

Global Collaboration Engine
GLOBE (Global Collaboration Engine) is an online collaborative environment that enables land change researchers to share, compare and integrate local and regional studies with global data to assess the global relevance of their work.

Open Research Data Online
Open Research Data Online (ORDO) is The Open University's research data repository. Based upon the Figshare platform, ORDO can be used for the storage of live research data, but is particularly useful for archiving and publishing research data supporting a publication or once a project is completed.

University of Tasmania Research Data Portal
The University of Tasmania Research Data Portal (RDP) enables UTAS researchers to securely store and publish their datasets. Datasets published in RDP are publicly available through the Research Data Australia Search Portal (

Integrated Carbon Observation System Data Portal
ICOS Data Portal provides observational data and elaborated products on greenhouse gases. Data sets can be visualised and downloaded fully and/or partially. ICOS data meets the global standards for atmospheric, ecosystem flux and marine observations of greenhouse gases. All information on observations and the metadata is stored in persistent long-term repositories.

Bridges is a collaborative digital repository for Monash University researchers. It allows researchers to manage, store, share and selectively publish their research files as citable research outputs with a persistent URL. Researchers maintain control over who can see their private files and all uploads are stored at Monash University.

Data Integration and Analysis System
The Data Integration and Analysis System (DIAS) was created to collect and store earth observation data; to analyze such data in combination with socio-economic data, and convert data into information useful for crisis management with respect to global-scale environmental disasters, and other threats; and to make this information available within Japan and overseas.

National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive
The National Institute of Mental Health Data Archive (NDA), originally established to support autism research, is an informatics platform and data repository that facilitates data sharing across all of mental health and other research communities, combining data from each of these repositories into a single resource with a single process for gaining access to all shared data. While querying and browsing data is publicly available, all subject-level data is available behind a login.

GEOFON seeks to facilitate cooperation in seismological research and earthquake and tsunami risk mitigation by providing rapid open transnational access to seismological data and source parameters of large earthquakes, and keeping these data accessible in the long term. It pursues these aims by operating and maintaining its own global network of permanent seismic stations in cooperation with local partners, facilitating real-time access to data from this network and those of many partner networks and plate boundary observatories, and providing a FAIR archive for seismological data. It also serves as the permanent archive for the Geophysical Instrument Pool at Potsdam (GIPP). Using real-time data streams, GEOFON provides rapid automatic earthquake parametric information to the scientific community, tsunami warning centres worldwide, organizations involved in rescue operations, news media and the general public. GEOFON is one of the nodes of the European Integrated Data Archive (EIDA) and a key nodal member of the European-Mediterranean Seismological Centre (EMSC).

Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research Open Research Data
The Leibniz Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research Open Research Data (ZALF Open Research Data) repository contains freely accessible primary research data primarily created at ZALF, although data from other institutions involved in landscape research may also be submitted. The portal provides free access to data and their descriptive metadata, including information about research context, instruments, methods, research areas and data management aspects. Data registered with this resource will be given a DOI. This resource provides data in the areas of climate change, food security, biodiversity conservation, resource scarcity, crop systems, and sustainability.

Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources
The Database of Individual Seismogenic Sources (DISS) is a georeferenced repository of tectonic, fault, and paleoseismological information expressly devoted, but not limited, to potential applications in the assessment of seismic hazard at regional and national scale. DISS represents faults in 3D and contains fully-parameterized records. The core objects of DISS are: individual seismogenic sources, composite seismogenic sources, debated seismogenic sources and subduction zones.

DataStream is an open data platform for sharing information about freshwater health. It allows users to access, visualize and download full water quality datasets collected by communities and researchers throughout three regional hubs in the Mackenzie River Basin, Lake Winnipeg watershed and across Atlantic Canada.

International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics Dataverse
The International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) Dataverse stores data relating to agricultural research in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. The goal of ICRISAT and its partners is to use this research to overcome poverty, hunger and a degraded environment through better agriculture.

U.S. Antarctic Program Data Center
The U.S. Antarctic Program Data Center (USAP-DC) provides a central USAP Project Catalog for all projects funded by the NSF Antarctic program and a Data Repository for research datasets derived from these projects. Data managed include the NSF research related glaciology data collection formerly managed through NSIDC. Datasets are registered in the Antarctic Master Directory to comply with the Antarctic Treaty and represent the U.S. in Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research (SCAR) activities.

Human Sciences Research Council Research Data Service
The HSRC Research Data Service provides a digital repository facility for the HSRC’s research data in support of evidence-based human and social development in South Africa and the broader region. The mission is to make research data accessible and to ensure its future survival and usability, with the aim to develop a quantitative and qualitative social science research data collection of high re-use value that speaks to the priorities of a developing country, such as the South African Social Attitudes Survey (SASAS) and the South African National HIV Prevalence, HIV Incidence, Behaviour and Communication Survey (SABSSM) amongst others. Access to data is dependent on ethical requirements for protecting research participants, as well as on legal agreements with the owners, funders, or in the case of data owned by the HSRC, the requirements of the depositors of the data. All data sets are provided free of charge. Metadata records that describe data sets, as well as related documentation including Read me files, user guides, code books, questionnaires, and other related information are provided such that informed decisions can be made about whether the data will be useful for an intended purpose.

Bicocca Open Archive Research Data
BOARD (Bicocca Open Archive Research Data) is the institutional data repository of the University of Milano-Bicocca. BOARD is an open, free-to-use research data repository, which enables members of University of Milano-Bicocca to make their research data publicly available. By depositing their research data in BOARD researchers can make their research data citable, share their data privately or publicly, ensure long-term storage for their data, keep access to all versions and link their article to their data. is the research data repository of (Specialized Information Service Art - Photography - Design). It provides art historians with the opportunity to permanently publish and archive research data in the field of art history in connection with an open access online publication (e.g. article, ejournal, ebook) hosted by Heidelberg University Library. All research data e.g. images, videos, audio files, tables, graphics etc. receive a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The data publications can be cited, viewed and permanently linked to as distinct academic output.

Open Data Commons for Spinal Cord Injury
The Open Data Commons for Spinal Cord Injury is a cloud-based community-driven repository to store, share, and publish spinal cord injury research data. There are several challenges for scientific reproducibility and bench-to-bedside translation. For example, only research and data that are published actually get disseminated, a phenomenon known as publication bias. Published research reflects to only a small fraction of all data collected, and data that do not lead to publication are largely ignored, hidden away in filing cabinets and hard drives. This results in an abundance of inaccessible scientific data known as “dark data”. Even when research is disseminated, it is usually in the form of summary reports of aggregated data (e.g. averages across individual subjects) such as scientific articles. The fact that the individual subject-level data are inaccessible further contributes to dark data. The spinal cord injury (SCI) community created the ODC-SCI to mitigate dark data in SCI research. The ODC-SCI also aims to increase transparency with individual-level data, enhance collaboration, facilitate advanced analytics, and conform to increasing mandates by funders and publishers to make data accessible. Members of the ODC-SCI have access to a private digital lab space managed by the PI or multi-PIs for dataset storage and sharing. The PIs can share their labs’ datasets with the registered members of the ODC-SCI community and make their datasets public and citable. The ODC-SCI implements stewardship principles that scientific data be made FAIR (Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) and has been widely adopted by the international SCI research community.

Propylaeum@heiDATA is the research data repository of Propylaeum (Specialized Information Service Classics). It provides classical scholars with the opportunity to archive their research data permanently in connection with an open access online publication (e.g. article, ejournal, ebook) hosted by Heidelberg University Library. All research data e.g. images, videos, audio files, tables, graphics receive a DOI (Digital Object Identifier). The data publications can be cited, viewed and permanently linked to as distinct academic output.

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