Standards > terminology artifact > bsg-s000063

ready BRENDA tissue / enzyme source


General Information
A structured controlled vocabulary for the source of an enzyme. It comprises terms for tissues, cell lines, cell types and cell cultures from uni- and multicellular organisms.


Developed in Germany

Created in 1991

Taxonomic range

Scope and data types

Collected/Recommended By

Record updated: Oct. 11, 2016, 9:46 p.m. by The FAIRsharing Team.

In Collections


No support information provided.

Additional Information

External Links


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No XSD schemas defined

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Conditions of Use

BTO Ontology Display

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Related Standards

Terminology Artifacts

Models and Formats

No syntax standards defined

Implementing Databases (3)
Stem Cell Discovery Engine
Comparison system for cancer stem cell analysis

The Global Proteome Machine Database
Rather than being a complete record of a proteomics experiment, this database holds the minimum amount of information necessary for certain bioinformatics-related tasks, such as sequence assignment validation. Most of the data is held in a set of XML files.

Target Central Resource Database
TCRD is the central resource behind the Illuminating the Druggable Genome Knowledge Management Center (IDG-KMC). TCRD contains information about human targets, with special emphasis on four families of targets that are central to the NIH IDG initiative: GPCRs, kinases, ion channels and nuclear receptors. Olfactory GPCRs (oGPCRs) are treated as a separate family. A key aim of the KMC is to classify the development/druggability level of targets. The official public portal for TCRD is Pharos ( Based on modern web design principles the Pharos interface provides facile access to all data types collected by the KMC. Given the complexity of the data surrounding any target, efficient and intuitive visualization has been a high priority, to enable users to quickly navigate & summarize search results and rapidly identify patterns. A critical feature of the interface is the ability to perform flexible search and subsequent drill down of search results. Underlying the interface is a RESTful API that provides programmatic access to all KMC data, allowing for easy consumption in user applications.

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Grant Number(s)

  • 01KX1235 (The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF))


The BRENDA Tissue Ontology (BTO): the first all-integrating ontology of all organisms for enzyme sources.

Nucleic Acids Res. 2011

View Paper (PubMed)

BRENDA in 2015: exciting developments in its 25th year of existence.

Chang A,Schomburg I,Placzek S,Jeske L,Ulbrich M,Xiao M,Sensen CW,Schomburg D
Nucleic Acids Res 2014

View Paper (PubMed) View Paper (DOI)

BRENDA in 2013: integrated reactions, kinetic data, enzyme function data, improved disease classification: new options and contents in BRENDA.

Schomburg I,Chang A,Placzek S,Sohngen C,Rother M,Lang M,Munaretto C,Ulas S,Stelzer M,Grote A,Scheer M,Schomburg D
Nucleic Acids Res 2012

View Paper (PubMed) View Paper (DOI)